Services and Placement

Services and Placement




What are some possible services available to my student?

Based on the description of strengths and weaknesses (needs) written in the student’s PLAAFP, a variety of special education services, related services, and/or supplementary aids and services can be provided. 


↘Special Education Services

Special education services include specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of the student. Special education services are those necessary to enable the student to achieve the annual goals, make 126CSR16 54 progress in the general education curriculum and participate in extracurricular and other non-academic activities. Special education services document the goal area requiring specially designed instruction, e.g., English/Language Arts, Math, Behavior or Fine Motor Skills. Special education services are either direct or indirect. Direct services are instruction, therapies or interventions provided one-on-one or in groups to an eligible student in the general education classroom or in a special education school environment, home or community. Indirect services are services provided by a special education teacher or provider to the student’s teacher(s) to directly benefit the student. Examples of indirect instruction are designing instructional materials or monitoring behavior management plans.


↘Related Services

The term “related services” refers to transportation and such developmental, corrective and other supportive services required to assist an eligible student to benefit from special education as described in the IEP. These services include, but are not limited to:

· Assistive technology

· Audiology

· Speech-language therapy

· Interpreting services

· Psychological services

· Physical therapy

· Occupational therapy

· Therapeutic recreation

· Counseling services

· Early identification and assessment of students’ exceptionalities

· Rehabilitation counseling services

· Orientation and mobility services

· School nurse services

· Social work services in school

· Supports for school staff

· Transportation


** NOTE: This list of related services is not exhaustive and may include other developmental, corrective, supportive services or transition services based upon student need.


Although services may be of benefit to a student with an exceptionality, all of the services listed above may not be required for each individual student. Related services are the responsibility of the district only if the IEP Team determines they are required to assist the student to benefit from special education. Further, the student is not entitled to related services if:

a. He or she does not need special education, or

b. The parent or adult student does not consent to special education services.


                ↘Supplementary Aids and Services

Supplementary aids and services and program accommodations, modifications and supports for school personnel. Supplementary aids and services means aids, services, and other supports that are provided in general education classes or other education-related settings to enable students in need of special education services to be educated with students without exceptionalities to the maximum extent appropriate in accordance with LRE requirements. These services must be considered prior to removing a student from the general education classroom.


The determination of which supplementary aids and services are appropriate for a particular student must be made on an individual basis. Supplementary aids and services are any material/curricular/human resource or assistance, beyond what is normally afforded students without exceptionalities, provided to support a student with an exceptionality’s placement. Supplementary aids may include, but are not limited to, large print books, positive behavioral interventions, assistive technology devices, auditory trainers, curriculum accommodations, services and other supports that are provided in general education classes or other education related settings to enable students in need of special education services to be educated with students without exceptionalities to the maximum extent appropriate. Supplementary services may include, but are not limited to direct instruction, peer tutoring and note taking.


An accommodation can be a device, practice, intervention, or procedure provided to a student with a disability that affords equal access to instruction or assessment. Accommodations do not change the content of the general education curriculum, nor reduce learning or achievement expectations, but allow students with disabilities access to the curriculum through technology, universal design for learning (UDL), differentiated instruction (DI), cognitive strategies instruction and scaffolding.


Modifications are changes in educational expectations for the student. These include actual changes in the general education curriculum and instruction or the use of an alternative or supplemental curriculum. Examples include mastery of essential concepts, acceleration, different test questions and material at a different reading level.


Supports for school personnel may include, but are not limited to, additional training in the use of assistive technology, specific instructional strategies or the use of technology; other professional development activities such as mentoring or coaching; and assistance in planning lessons using differentiated instruction.


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